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Block Spammers/Hackers With mod_defensible On Apache2

mod_defensible is an Apache 2.x module intended to block spammers using DNSBL servers.

It will look at the client IP and check it in one or several DNSBL servers and return
a 403 Forbidden page to the client.

Download the package: here

Follow the steps below to compile and install the package.

# tar -zxvf mod_defensible-1.4.tar.gz
# cd mod_defensible-1.4/
# ./configure
# make
# make install

You can use --with-udns to enable udns (asynchronous resolver library) usage, which should be faster. However, this is not mandatory.

Open (apache configuration file) apache2.conf and go to the end where the virtual hosts are configured, and put the mod_defensible configuration right before the virtual hosts:

# Activate DNSBL usage
DnsblUse On
# Specify DNSBL servers

With udns support, you can also use:

# Specify another nameserver to use instead of default system resolver

Restart Apache afterwards: /etc/init.d/apache2 restart

That's it. If an IP address which is blacklisted tries to access your webserver, it will receive an HTTP error 403.
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Linux System monitoring using Dstat

dstat  is a versatile replacement for vmstat, iostat, netstat, nfsstat, and ifstat. It includes various counters (in separate plugins) and allows you to select and view all of your system resources instantly; you can, for example, compare disk usage in combination with interrupts from your IDE controller, or compare the network bandwidth numbers directly with the disk throughput (in the same interval).

Dstat also cleverly gives you the most detailed information in columns and clearly indicates in what magnitude and unit the output is displayed. Less confusion, less mistakes, more efficient.

Dstat is unique in letting you aggregate block device throughput for a certain diskset or network bandwidth for a group of interfaces, ie. you can see the throughput for all the block devices that make up a single filesystem or storage system.

Dstat allows its data to be directly written to a CSV file to be imported and used by OpenOffice, Gnumeric or Excel to create graphs.

OpenSuse 11: here
Fedora: here

After downloading the rpm file, install it using command: rpm -ivh dstat-0.6.8-3.1.noarch.rpm

Using Dstat
Using dstat to relate disk-throughput with network-usage (eth0), total CPU-usage and system counters:

dstat -dnyc -N eth0 -C total -f 5

Checking dstat's behaviour and the system's impact on dstat:

dstat -taf --debug

Using the time plugin together with cpu, net, disk, system, load, proc and topcpu plugins:

dstat -tcndylp -M topcpu

this is identical to: dstat -M time,cpu,net,disk,sys,load,proc,topcpu

Using dstat to relate cpu stats with interrupts per device:

dstat -tcyif

Get a Report by Mail
There may be cases wherein you want to observe how your server is performing over a period of time. You can setup a background process in Linux that will give you a reading with a certain interval, generate a report, and mail out the file to you.

The following script will run Dstat for three hours, reading the data every 30 seconds, and will mail out the report to

    dstat –output /tmp/dstat_data_mail.csv -CDN 30 360
    mutt -a /tmp/dstat_data_mail.csv -s “Dstat Report for 3 hour run” <  /dev/null

Save the above script in a file called on your server, give it executable permission and then run it as a background process:

# chmod +x
# nohup ./ &

Done. Yes, it’s that simple. You will now be mailed this report after it’s done running. You can optionally schedule this script as a daily cron job so that you can receive this data every day.
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Upgrade Fedora 9 with Fedora 10

Fedora  10 codenamed "Cambridge" has been released. This new version of the community oriented, Red Hat backed Linux distribution comes with new features which enhance the end user experience.

Fedora 10 is built on Linux kernel version 2.6.27. It comes with improved support for a choice of webcams, improved infrared remote support, better Bluetooth support which incorporates a new, easier to use wizard for setting up keyboards, mice, and other supported Bluetooth devices, A new improved graphical boot system called Plymouth, OpenOffice 3, Firefox 3.0.4, GNOME 2.24, KDE 4.1, LXDE, GIMP 2.6, you got it all in Fedora 10.

Before we upgrade, we must install the latest updates:  # yum -y update
Next clean the yum cache:  # yum clean all

Install the Fedora 10 release packages:

For i386: 
# rpm -Uvh*.noarch.rpm

For x86_64: 
# rpm -Uvh*.noarch.rpm

Then run
# yum clean all
# yum -y upgrade

After scucessfull upgrade, Install the new GRUB bootloader to the MBR of your hard drive:

# /sbin/grub-install /dev/sda

Replace /dev/sda with your own hard drive - you can find that out by running: # fdisk -l
Finally, we reboot the system: # reboot
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Multimedia Support in Fedora 10

Why doesn’t Fedora support MP3 ‘out of the box’?
Fedora cannot include support for MP3 or DVD video playback or recording. MP3 formats are patented, and the patent holders have not provided the necessary licenses. Fedora also excludes other multimedia software due to patent, copyright, or license restrictions, such as Adobe Flash Player and RealNetworks RealPlayer.
That doesn’t mean you can’t play .mp3 files in Fedora, it just takes a bit of work (not much).

Follow these instructions to get mp3 and other multimedia support on your Fedora 10.

Open a terminal and become root, then run this command:

# rpm -ivh 
# rpm -ivh 

Now, Install all other plug ins..

# yum -y install gstreamer-plugins-bad gstreamer-plugins-ugly xine-lib-extras-nonfree

After successful installation, open Amarok or any other multimedia player and try to play the mp3 file and see if all goes fine and you are able to hear the music.


To install xmms and make it MP3-capable, start by doing this:

# yum install xmms xmms-mp3

MPEG, QuickTime, AVI, and DVDs

MPEG (the format used on DVDs) represents itself as an open standard, but most Linux distributions won't ship software that read it because of blocking patents held by MPEGLA. AVI and Apple QuickTime have proprietary codecs covered by patents, so most Linux distributions won't ship software that decodes them, either.

Unfortunately, the alternate front end xine is even more broken. It can be installed this way:

# yum install xine xine-lib libdvdcss

Doing this will also install a number of support libraries, including the libdvdcss plugin
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FTP port forwarding using Iptables

Well, let’s imagine rather trivial situation: you have Linux router connected to Internet via e.g. ADSL modem and some local network comprising several computers and servers connected to that router via switches and/or Wi-Fi access points.

Done? Ok.

There is one public IP assigned to WAN interface of the router while FTP server (of course run by Linux as well) has IP something like or 172.16.*.* or 10.*.*.*. Moreover you want to allow people to access your FTP from every corner of Internet… So, there are several ways how to apply this but let’s talk about how to achieve this by means of using port forwarding feature that is available in any router’s functions list.

So, let’s say we have the following configuration:

Internet <-> [a] router [b] <-> [c] FTP server

[a] is WAN interface with (just an example) IP assigned to it, [b] is NIC with and [c] is server’s interface with IP All what we need is that users from Internet can access FTP server using IP and default 21 TCP port.

One of the main problems is that passive mode of FTP service uses any port from range 1024 to 65535 so it’s not enough to forward 21/20 ports to FTP server and let the ball rolling. So, go to servers’ CLI and open configuration file of an FTP service. It would be vsftpd, proftpd whatever. Let’s say we have vsftpd so we have to add the following lines to /etc/vsftpd.conf:


When changes are saved restart vsftpd server.

Now access router’s CLI and type the following:

iptables -t nat -I PREROUTING -d -p tcp -m tcp --dport 21 -j DNAT --to-destination

iptables -t nat -I PREROUTING -d -p tcp -m tcp --dport 12000:13000 -j DNAT --to-destination

This will add netfilter port forwarding rules which will redirect traffic coming at routers’ public IP through 21 TCP port to FTP server and will properly handle passive FTP mode.
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Clean up your filesystem using FSlint

FSlint is a toolkit to find various forms of lint on a filesystem. At the moment it reports duplicate files, bad symbolic links, troublesome file names, empty directories, non stripped executables, temporary files, duplicate/conflicting (binary) names, and unused ext2 directory blocks.

OpenSuse 11 user can use 1-click installer for FSlint  from  to download the YaST MetaPackage file (YMP) and launch with YaST Package Manager.

After sucesfull installation you can go to “Applications - System - File System” menu. and  Launch FSlint and you should see something like ...

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400 Solitaire games on OpenSuse Linux

Ultrasol is a collection of nearly 400 different solitaire or patience games. There are games that use the 52 card International Pattern deck, games for the 78 card Tarock deck, eight and ten suit Ganjifa games, Hanafuda games, Matrix games, Mahjongg games, and games for an original hexadecimal-based deck. It includes many different sets of playing card images and all under standard solitaire type window

OpenSuse user can use 1-click installer for Ultrasol from Packman to download the YaST MetaPackage file (YMP) and launch with YaST Package Manager. This 1-click installer supports openSUSE 11.0/10.3/10.2 & openSUSE 11.1 (Beta)

After sucesfull installation you can go to “Applications - Games - Card Games“ and  Launch Ultrasol and you have it all…all the 400 different solitaire games.

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Wallpaper displaying weather of your city

Weather wallpaper is a program which connects to NOAA each hour to get the current weather at the specified location and creates and sets a wallpaper with the data retrieved.


If you use Debian, Ubuntu, or another distro which uses deb packages, you can download the deb (weather-wallpaper-0.2.0.deb) and simply double-click on it to launch the installer, or you can add  repository to your sources.list file, so that your distro can inform you of new releases.

If you choose for the second method, open the file /etc/apt/sources.list with your favorite editor as root and add this line:

    deb hardy main

Update the list of packages writing sudo aptitude update on the terminal, and install the application by writing sudo aptitude install weather-wallpaper.

If you use other distribution, download the tar.gz: weather-wallpaper-0.2.0.tar.gz, uncompress it, and execute the command make install with root privileges.


To start the program run Application -- Accessories -- Weather wallpaper.

The program will retrieve the weather report from NOAA and create a wallpaper with the information for the default location: Getafe, Madrid, Spain. To change it to your current location, right click on the status icon and select preferences, where you can specify the ICAO Location Indicator for your city and select the unit system you want to use.

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Screencapture made easy with GScrot

GScrot  is a GTK+ 2.0 screenshot application written in perl. GScrot covers all features of common command line tools like scrot or import and adds reasonable new features combined with a comfortable GUI using the GTK+ 2.0 framework.

 * take a screenshot of your complete desktop, a rectangular area or capture a website
 * take screenshot directly or with a specified delay time
 * save the screenshots to a specified directory and name them in a convenient way (using special wild-cards)
 * GScrot is fully integrated into the Gnome Desktop (TrayIcon etc.)
 * generate thumbnails directly when you are taking a screenshot and set a size level in %
 * GScrot session collection
    – keep track of all screenshots during session
    – copy screeners to clipboard
    – print screenshots
    – delete screenshots
    – rename your file
* upload your files directly to Image-Hosters, retrieve all the needed links and share them with others
edit your screenshots directly using the embedded drawing tool

Ultimately an application that meets all requirement and easy to use

First add the following repository into your sources.list. This is the line to add:

  deb main intrepid 

From a Terminal:
sudo aptitude update
sudo aptitude install gscrot
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What would happen if "The Matrix" run on Windows

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Make Linux Look like Windows XP with XPGnome

Just download the zip  file, Right-click it and select "Extract Here", then run the "" by double-clicking it and choosing "Run"!

Changes: Icons, GTK, Metacity, Splash, GDM Theme, Panel Background, Desktop Background, Visible Desktop Icons, Nautilus Tree View, Toolbar to Icons only. Deletes all GNOME Panels and adds a new one at bottom with Start Menu, Show Desktop, Window Switcher, Notification Area, Volume Control and Clock.

And finally you should see something like ...

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Linux. Join the Revolution! Wallpaper

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Unix tattoo

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Adobe Flash Player 10 installation on OpenSuSe

With Flash Player 10, Adobe is focusing on building "expressive" applications for the Web, said Tom Barclay, Adobe senior product marketing manager for Flash Player. Applications can be deployed including online video, rich Internet applications, online games, and other interactive experiences.

Built-in support for 3D is featured, as opposed to the third-party support previously offered. Developers can work in 2D and transform 2D objects into the 3D space

Version 10 also features the ability to build custom filters and effects via Adobe Pixel Bender technology, which previously was featured in Adobe After Effects CS4 software. Developers can build motion graphics and special effects.

A new text engine in Flash Player 10 offers multilingual text capabilities and flowable text that can be laid out vertically and horizontally. Other major features in version 10 include dynamic streaming for video playback, supporting multiple bit rates, and advanced audio processing, which enables development of applications like music sequencers. For more details, click here to view the release notes for Adobe Flash Player 10

Install Adobe Flash Player 10
To install Adobe Flashplayer 10, it is important that you uninstall any previous versions of flashplayer installed on your openSUSE.

To check if flashplayer is already installed on your system

    # rpm -qa | grep flash

If any is uninstall as a root user as follows:

    # rpm -e flash-player

Now, download Adobe Flash Player 10 (tar.gz)  from here.
Once downloaded, unzip, untar the downloaded file.

# tar -zxvf install_flash_player_10_linux.tar.gz
# cd install_flash_player_10_linux

Before installing make sure you close all your browsers and run the following command as a normal user
nikesh@poison:~> ./flashplayer-installer

Copyright(C) 2002-2006 Adobe Macromedia Software LLC.  All rights reserved.
Adobe Flash Player 10 for Linux
Adobe Flash Player 10 will be installed on this machine.
You are running the Adobe Flash Player installer as the "root" user.
Adobe Flash Player 10 will be installed system-wide.
Support is available at
To install Adobe Flash Player 10 now, press ENTER.
To cancel the installation at any time, press Control-C.
----------- Install Action Summary -----------

Adobe Flash Player 10 will be installed in the following directory:
Mozilla installation directory  = /home/nikesh/.mozilla
Proceed with the installation? (y/n/q): y

"Enter" to begin the installation and finally press "y" to complete the installation of Adobe Flash Player in your openSUSE.

To confirm successful installation launch your Firefox browser and in the address bar type “about:plugins” and press enter. This show the installed plugins of which one should be your newly installed Adobe Flashplayer 10

or go to --  to check the version of the Flash player installed
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Webmin installation and configuration on OpenSuSe

Webmin, developed by Jamie Cameron, acts as a comprehensive interface to the underlying applications on servers, including support for configuring applications like ftp, ssh, mail, Web, databases and more. Differing from other control panels, the core Webmin interface is intended for system administrators with root access to their servers, and includes a user-based package to enable your users (or clients) to access their own domains, email, and more, within a limited scope. Webmin supports running under SSL.

The application runs on its own mini-Web server so as to be available even when your primary Web server software is not running (i.e. Apache, etc.), and is powered by a number of Perl-based applications that directly interface with your system configuration files. According to Webmin, the entire solution is built on Perl 5 and uses no non-standard Perl modules.

Installing the RPM

You need to use RPM version of Webmin, first download the file and then run the command :

# rpm -ivh webmin-1.441-1.noarch.rpm

The rest of the install will be done automatically to the directory /usr/libexec/webmin, the administration username set to root and the password to your current root password. You should now be able to login to Webmin at the URL http://localhost:10000/

Configuring Your Firewall For Webmin

Many operating systems block access to port 10000 by default, as they have a firewall activated as part of the installation process. This may prevent you from logging into http://yourserver:10000/ from another system on your network or over the Internet.

The simplest way to open up port 10000 is to use one of the Webmin firewall management modules, such as Linux Firewall, BSD Firewall or IPFilter Firewall. However, to access this you'll need to run a brower on the same system as Webmin, and access it via the URL http://localhost:10000/.

The alternative is to login as root via SSH, and manually edit the firewall configuration file. On Redhat and derived systems, this is /etc/sysconfig/iptables, while on Debian it is /var/lib/iptables. The line you need to add is :

-A INPUT -p tcp -m tcp --dport 10000 -j ACCEPT

It should be added in the file just after similar lines which grant access to ports 80, 22 and so on.

Once this line has been added, you will need to apply the firewall configuration. This is typically done with the command /etc/init.d/iptables restart .
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Installing Apple's Safari Browser and Itunes 7 On OpenSuSe 11 With PlayOnLinux

There is no Linux version of Safari not Itunes but, can be run under Wine. We will use a tool called PlayOnLinux to install Safari under Wine and similar Itunes 7 .

With PlayOnLinux you can install lots of Windows games and some Windows applications (such as Office 2003, IE6, MS Money, etc.) on Linux. Installing Safari on Linux is good for people such as web designers who have switched to Linux but still need to test their web sites in other browsers.

1) Download PlayOnLinux using "1-click" installer - here

2) Sart "playonlinux" from command prompt using command - playonlinux, you should see something like ...

3) Click "Forward" to install any updates for playonlinux, this will also install Microsoft fonts if not installed.

4) After sucesfull operation, you should see the main window of playonlinux.

5) Now click on  "Install" tab to open the installation windows from where you can navigate to different sections like "internet", "Games", etc ..., Navigate to "Internet" and select "Safari" and click "Apply" to install safari on OpenSuSe 11.0

6) Similarly navigate to the "multimedia" section and select "Itunes 7" for installation
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How to create System Image

Hard Disk Clone
Suppose you have a 40GB hard disk and a removable hard disk whose capacity is 60GB, and you want to backup all the files from the hard disk to the removable disk. With "dd", it is a very easy task. Again, suppose your hard disk's Unix device name is /dev/sda and the removable disk is /dev/sdb. The following command can copy all the content from /dev/sda to /dev/sdb:

dd if=/dev/sda of=/dev/sdb

Here, if=... sets the source and of=... sets the destination. "dd" doesn't care of the contents of the hard disk. It just reads bytes from /dev/sda and writes them into /dev/sdb. It doesn't know what are files. So, the hard disk file system and how many partitions it has are not important. For example, if /dev/sda is splitted into three partitions, the /dev/sdb will have the same partitions. i.e. "destination" is completely same with "source".

Notice: to execute "dd" you should login as "root" or switch to "root" using "su" command. And you must be careful, a small mistake may cause a serious problem!
Making a Hard Disk Image File

Most of time you don't want to make a complete duplication of your hard disk. You may prefer to creating an image file of the hard disk and save it in other storage devices. The following command will create an image file "disk1.img" in your user's directory from /dev/sda:

dd if=/dev/sda of=~/disk1.img

Since you have created an image file, you can compress it with "gzip" or "bzip2":

gzip disk1.img #generates disk1.img.gz or
bzip2 disk1.img #generates disk1.img.bz2

You can save much storage space with compression. But it will take very long time.

Partition Clone
Backing up a hard disk partition is much similar to backing up a whole hard disk. The reason is that Unix/Linux uses device name, such as /dev/sda1, /dev/sda5... to indicate the partitions. For example, if you want to create an image file from the first partition of /dev/sda, use "dd" like this:

dd if=/dev/sda1 of=~/disk2.img

Also, you can compress the image file:

gzip disk2.img

By the way, you can copy a partition to another partition completely, just set "of" to the partition's device name. For example:

dd if=/dev/sda1 of=/dev/sdb5

This command will copy all the contents from /dev/sda1 to /dev/sdb5. You must be sure that the capacity of /dev/sdb5 is larger than /dev/sda1.

Restoring from an Image File
To restore a partition or a hard disk from an image file, just exchange the arguments "if" and "of". For example, restore the whole hard disk from the image file "disk1.img":

dd if=disk1.img of=/dev/sda

Restore the first partition of /dev/sda from the image file "disk2.img":

dd if=disk2.img of=/dev/sda1
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Installing VMware on Ubuntu

VMware software provides a completely virtualized set of hardware to the guest operating system. VMware software virtualizes the hardware for a video adapter, a network adapter, and hard disk adapters. The host provides pass-through drivers for guest USB, serial, and parallel devices. In this way, VMware virtual machines become highly portable between computers, because every host looks nearly identical to the guest. In practice, a systems administrator can pause operations on a virtual machine guest, move or copy that guest to another physical computer, and there resume execution exactly at the point of suspension. Alternately, for enterprise servers, a feature called VMotion allows the migration of operational guest virtual machines between similar but separate hardware hosts sharing the same storage.

Download VMware

    * wget

While you begin downloading VMware, register here to get the free serial key.

Also, install the following package:

  * sudo apt-get install kernel-package xinetd

Now, unpack the VMware pacakage:

  * tar zxvf VMware-server-1.0.8-126538.tar.gz
  * cd vmware-server-directory

Run the installation script:

  * sudo ./

Now you will get a series of questions that you need to answer and finally it will install the VMserver on your Ubuntu box.
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How to add extra repositories into Ubuntu

There are thousands of programs available to install on Ubuntu. These programs are stored in software repositories and are made freely available for all Ubuntu users. This makes it very easy to install new programs, and it is also very secure because each program you install is built specially for Ubuntu and checked before it is allowed into the repositories. 

It is possible to add extra repositories, such as those provided by third parties or those for older version of Ubuntu.

   1. Open System Administration Software Sources and press Third Party Software.
   2. Press Add to add a new repository.
   3. Enter the APT line for the extra repository. This should be available from the website of the repository or similar, and should look similar to the following:

      deb etch main

   4. Press Add Source and then click Close to save your changes.
   5. You will be notified that the information about available software is out-of-date. Press Reload.

   6. Most software repositories use a GPG key to digitally sign the files they provide, which makes it easy to check that the files have not been tampered with since their creation. In order for apt to be able to check this, you need the public key that corresponds to the signatures. The key should be available for download on the repository's website.

   7. Once you have downloaded the GPG key, import the key by selecting the Authentication tab, clicking on Import Key File, and then selecting the GPG key to be imported.
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Securing Ubuntu

ProShield is a system administration/security program for Ubuntu/Debian GNU/Linux. It helps insure that your system is secure and up-to-date by checking many different aspects of your system. Whether you are a Linux novice or a system administrator with a dozen servers, ProShield is designed to be usable by all. Its main goal is to help secure a newly installed computer, as well as maintain the security of an existing machine. It's part security and part security administration.

The main features of ProShield are:

    * Helps you backup your system weekly.
    * Checks for new software releases, in order to see if installed software is reasonably up to date.  Smart-suggestion to upgrade if an important package is released.
    * Disk-space check to find any partitions that are 70% full or more.
    * Checks for extra root accounts.
    * Checks account & password files for correct access control permissions.
    * Makes sure a few security-hazardous packages are not installed.
    * Checks to make sure a packet sniffer is not running.
    * Removes unneeded packages from the local package archive.
    * Checks to see if 'apt' is fetching unnecessary information when checking for software updates.
    * Makes sure system time is accurate.
    * Checks to make sure the user isn't logged into the system (GUI) as root.
    * Checks the configuration of the ssh server ([sshd] if installed) for insecure settings.
    * At runtime, ProShield will also check to see if there has been a new version released, and can download and install it at the user's preference.

When the program is done analyzing your system, it displays an "advisory report", and then (if necessary), guides you through a series of interactive questions to help you solve any problems it found.

ProShield is released as a Debian package, ready for easy installation.  After installation, type "proshield" to start the program (you need to do this in a shell/terminal).

Download the latest version: ProShield v3.8.19

Easy Install:

If you don't know what a Debian package is, or you'd just like to install ProShield painlessly right now, you can paste this command into a shell/terminal: (you should also use this if you intend to install the ProShield package from the command line, as this method will resolve dependencies)

sudo sh ps-install
rm ps-install
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Fast and simple - IP and Port Scanner

Angry IP Scanner (or simply ipscan) is an open-source and cross-platform network scanner designed to be fast and simple to use. It scans IP addresses and ports

It is widely used by network administrators and just curious users around the world, including large and small enterprises, banks, and government agencies.

It runs on Linux, Windows, and Mac OS X, possibly supporting other platforms as well.

* It can scan IP addresses in any range as well as any their ports. It is cross-platform and lightweight. Not requiring any installations, it can be freely copied and used anywhere.

* Angry IP scanner simply pings each IP address to check if it's alive, then optionally it is resolving its hostname, determines the MAC address, scans ports, etc. The amount of gathered data about each host can be extended with plugins.

* It also has additional features, like NetBIOS information (computer name, workgroup name, and currently logged in Windows user), favorite IP address ranges, web server detection, customizable openers, etc.

* Scanning results can be saved to CSV, TXT, XML or IP-Port list files. With help of plugins, Angry IP Scanner can gather any information about scanned IPs. Anybody who can write Java code is able to write plugins and extend functionality of Angry IP Scanner.

* In order to increase scanning speed, it uses multithreaded approach: a separate scanning thread is created for each scanned IP address. The full source code is available

Download version 3.0-beta3 below

    * RPM Package for Fedora/RedHat/Suse/Mandriva, 32-bit
    * DEB Package for Ubuntu/Debian, 32-bit
    * Executable JAR for any distribution, 32-bit
    * Executable JAR for any distribution, 64-bit
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Console based E-Mail Clients

Pine (

Pine is a program for Internet News & Email: a tool for reading, sending, and managing electronic messages. Pine was developed by UW Technology at the University of Washington. Though originally designed for inexperienced email users, Pine has evolved to support many advanced features, with an ever-growing number of configuration and personal-preference options.

Pine uses Internet message protocols (e.g. RFC-822, SMTP, MIME, IMAP, NNTP).

Pine's message composition editor, Pico, is also available as a separate standalone program. Pico is a very simple and easy-to-use text editor offering paragraph justification, cut/paste, and a spelling checker.

Features include:
    * Online help specific to each screen and context
    * Message index showing a message summary which includes the status, sender, size, date and subject of messages
    * Commands to view and process messages: Forward, Reply, Save, Export, Print, Delete, capture address, and search
    * Message composer with easy-to-use editor and spelling checker. The message composer also assists entering and formatting addresses and provides direct access to the address book
    * Address book for saving long complex addresses and personal distribution lists under a nickname
    * Message attachments via the Multipurpose Internet Mail Extensions (MIME) specification. MIME allows sending/receiving non-text objects, such as binary files, spreadsheets, graphics, and sound
    * Folder management commands for creating, deleting, listing, or renaming message folders. Folders may be local or on remote hosts
    * Access to remote message folders and archives via the Internet Message Access Protocol (IMAP)
    * Internet news support via either NNTP or IMAP
    * Aggregate operations, e.g. saving a selected set of messages at once.

mutt (

Mutt is a small but very powerful text based program for reading electronic mail under unix operating systems, including support color terminals, MIME, and a threaded sorting mode.

Mutt supports most mail formats (notably both mbox and Maildir) and protocols (POP3, IMAP, etc). It also includes MIME support, notably full PGP/GPG and S/MIME integration.

Features include:
    * Colour support
    * Message threading
    * MIME support (including RFC2047 support for encoded headers)
    * PGP/MIME (RFC2015)
    * Various features to support mailing lists, including list-reply
    * Active development community
    * POP3 support
    * IMAP support
    * Full control of message headers when composing
    * Support for multiple mailbox formats (mbox, MMDF, MH, maildir)
    * Highly customizable, including keybindings and macros
    * Change configuration automatically based on recipients, current folder, etc.
    * Searches using regular expressions, including an internal pattern matching language
    * Delivery Status Notification (DSN) support
    * Postpone message composition indefinitely for later recall
    * Easily include attachments when composing, even from the command line
    * Ability to specify alternate addresses for recognition of mail forwarded from other accounts, with ability to set the From: headers on replies/etc. accordingly
    * Multiple message tagging
    * Reply to or forward multiple messages at once
    * .mailrc style configuration files
    * Translation into at least 20 languages
    * Small and efficient

Cone (

Cone stands for "console newsreader and emailer. Cone is a text-based mail client, which seamlessly handles multiple POP3, IMAP accounts, and local mail folders.

Cone is also a simple newsreader. Cone's interface is foolproof enough to be used by inexperienced users, but it also offers advanced features for power users.

Cone handles multiple mail accounts simultaneously.

Features include:
    * Can use the following kinds of mail accounts
          o Local mail folders, or maildirs
          o Remote POP3 and IMAP mail server accounts
    * Experimental SMAP mail server accounts
    * Full SSL/TLS support with IMAP, POP3, NNTP, SMTP, and SMAP. SASL CRAM-MD5/CRAM-SHA1 authentication (except for NNTP)
    * Built-in editor for creating messages
    * Displays HTML mail, with automatic de-moronization
    * Full UTF-8 support
    * Displays attached images, if invoked from an X terminal, by running Gnome's eog, or KDE's kview image viewer
    * Spell checker
    * Local and remote (IMAP or SMAP-based) addressbooks
    * Remote configuration (share a common configuration between different instances of Cone)
    * Supports access to servers through a Socks 5 proxy, using the Courier Socks 5 API toolkit
    * Sends mail using an external SMTP server (with/without authentication), or the local sendmail
    * PGP/GPG based encryption, and digital signatures
    * Simple newsgroup reader

Alpine (

Alpine (Alternatively Licensed Program for Internet News and Email) is a fast, easy to use console based email client, developed at the University of Washington. It is suitable for both the inexperienced email user as well as for the most demanding power user.

Alpine is a screen-oriented message-handling tool.  In its default configuration, Alpine offers an intentionally limited set of functions geared toward the novice user, but it also has a large list of optional "power-user" and personal-preference features.

Features include:
    * View, Save, Export, Delete, Print, Reply and Forward messages
    * Compose messages in a simple editor (Pico) with word-wrap and a spelling checker. Messages may be postponed for later completion
    * Full-screen selection and management of message folders
    * Address book to keep a list of long or frequently-used addresses. Personal distribution lists may be defined. Addresses may be taken into the address book from incoming mail without retyping them
    * New mail checking and notification occurs automatically every 2.5 minutes and after certain commands, e.g. refresh-screen (Ctrl-L)
    * On-line, context-sensitive help screens
    * Support for MIME (Multipurpose Internet Mail Extensions)
    * Save MIME objects to files
Read more

Application Launchers

Gnome Do (

GNOME Do allows you to quickly search for many items present in your GNOME desktop environment.  These include applications, Evolution contacts, Firefox bookmarks, files, artists and albums in Rhythmbox, Pidgin buddies, etc.), as well as letting you perform commonly used actions on those items (Run, Open, Email, Chat, Play, etc.). 

Press Super+Spave (Windows+Space) brings up a dialog, at which point anyting can be typed.  In the screenshot to the left, typing ev has brought up the Evolution icon. GNOME Do's pop-up window has two panes: the left pane displays the matches for what you type on the keyboard, and the right displays the action that will happen when you press Enter.

GNOME Do is plugin based, allowing it to be easily extended to handle new items and actions.  This package contains a core set of items and actions.

Although GNOME Do primarily targets the GNOME desktop, it also works under other desktop environments

Features include:
    * Built-in Plugins:
          o Firefox - indexes Firefox bookmarks
          o Files - indexes files in user-specified directories
    * Official Plugins for Rhythmbox, Banshee, Amarok, Google Calculator, Evolution, Pidgin, GNOME Session, Search Web, Locate Files, Epiphany, Play Slideshow, Tasque, Tomboy, Twitter, AptUrl, SSH and Vinagre
    * Third-party Plugins: Disk Mounter, Wordnet, TSClient, Gmail, XSearch,, RSS, and GNOME Terminal Actions

Launchy (

Launchy is a utility designed to help users forget about the application menu, the icons on the desktop, and even the file manager.
Launchy indexes and launches applications, documents, project files, folders, and bookmarks with just a few keystrokes.

Once Launchy has been started, it hides in the background. It is then brought forward by holding the alt key and tapping the space key. A user then type in a few keys of the program he or she is searching for and hits enter once it has been found. Launchy can be made to dissappear again by hitting escape or alt+space.

Features include:
    * Plugin Support:
          o Weby - supporting google, msn, yahoo, live, weather, amazon, wikipedia, dictionary, thesaurus, imdb, netflix, and msdn websearch
          o Foxy - automatically load your Firefox bookmarks into the database.
          o Calcy Plugin - simple math calculation

Katapult (

Katapult is a KDE application that provides users with faster and easier access to their applications, bookmarks, and more. It is plugin-based and can launch anything it has a plugin for.

Its plugin-driven appearance is completely customizable. Katapult was inspired by Quicksilver for Mac OS X.

Katapult is launched simply by pressing Alt-Space. This pops up the Katapult launcher, allowing the user to type in the name of the application wanted to launch.

If you prefer the GNOME desktop environment, you may wish to try out Gnome Do.

Features include:
    * All applications listed in KMenu
    * Entire Amarok playlist
    * All of you bookmarks (Automatic Mozilla import, or manual import of file)
    * Use Katapult as a calculator
    * Use Katapult to see if you are spelling a word correctly
    * Easy access to all of your documents in the home directory
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Install latest VLC player on ubuntu 8.10 Intrepid Ibex

VLC media player is a highly portable multimedia player for various audio and video formats (MPEG-1, MPEG-2, MPEG-4, DivX, mp3, ogg, ...) as well as DVDs, VCDs, and various streaming protocols. It can also be used as a server to stream in unicast or multicast in IPv4 or IPv6 on a high-bandwidth network.

Click here to check more about VLC and other video player

1)Remove old VlC

Remove the previous version of VLC to avoid a conflict when you upgrade.
From terminal:  sudo apt-get remove vlc

2)Include new repository.

Click System ->Administration ->Software Sources ->Third Party Software.

Add in this repository: deb intrepid main
Close Software Sources & Click reload/refresh the repositories.

3)Install vlc

To install Vlc: sudo apt-get install vlc
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VNC password cracker - VNCcrack

VNCcrack is a fast offline password cracker for the VNC challenge/response protocol. If one can somehow observe a VNC authentication, then VNCcrack can run a dictionary attack against the exchange and attempt to find the password.

It works by scanning a pcap file (as generated by the common tcpdump tool) for VNC challenge/response exchanges, then checks against a preexisting wordlist

The Botan and pcap libraries are required.

Download the tar - Here
After having downloaded and decompressed the tgz file there's only to:

        $ cd VNCcrack-2.1
        $ ./configure
        $ make
        $ su -c "make install"
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Music Composer - AMUC

Amuc is a Linux application for composing and playing music.

Amuc is written in C++. It is a lightweight application, not needing a GUI toolkit or a non-standard library (needed: X11, alsa, xft, cairo). Speedy operation: maybe this is the fastest tool to explore musical ideas and to create a complete piece of music.

It works like this:
  * Tune fragments are entered graphically. These are combined into a complete tune by means of a script file.
  * Five-bar staff or piano roll display.
  * For the composer there is help available with scales and chords.
  * Tunes can be exported as WAVE or MIDI files, or as human-readable scores in postscript format.
  * MIDI files can be imported.
  * WAVE files can be read and transformed to notes.
  * Samples (e.g. for percussion instruments) can be read from WAVE files.
  * Support for USB keyboard.
  * Interface with Jack (the Jack Audio Connection Kit).

For more information on how to use the software, please refer to manual - here

Download the tar - here
After having downloaded and decompressed the tar.gz file there's only to:

        $ cd amuc-*
        $ ./configure
        $ make
        $ su -c "make install"
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Advanced drum machine for GNU/Linux - Hydrogen

Hydrogen is an advanced drum machine for GNU/Linux. It's main goal is to bring professional yet simple and intuitive pattern-based drum programming.

Feature Includes:

    * Very user-friendly, modular, fast and intuitive graphical interface based on QT 3.
    * Sample-based stereo audio engine, with import of sound samples in .wav, .au and .aiff formats.
    * Support of samples in compressed FLAC file.

Sequencer and mixer
    * Pattern-based sequencer, with unlimited number of patterns and ability to chain patterns into a song.
    * Up to 64 ticks per pattern with individual level per event and variable pattern length.
    * 32 instrument tracks with volume, mute, solo, pan capabilities.
    * Multi layer support for instruments (up to 16 samples for each instrument).
    * Ability to import/export song files.
    * Unique human velocity, human time, pitch and swing functions.
    * Multiple patterns playing at once.


    * JACK, ALSA, PortAudio and OSS audio drivers.
    * ALSA MIDI and PortMidi input with assignable midi-in channel (1..16, ALL).
    * Import/export of drumkits.
    * Export song to wav file.
    * Export song to midi file.

After having downloaded and decompressed the tar.gz file there's only to:

        $ cd hydrogen-*
        $ ./configure
        $ make
        $ su -c "make install"
Before compiling, check for additional options with:

        $./configure --help
Namely, if you get some error while running Hydrogen and you want to report it remember to configure the makefile with:

        $./configure --enable-debug
Please note that at the moment no binary packaging (.rpm, .deb, ...) is available
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OpenOffice 3.0 on Ubuntu Intrepid Ibex 3   is the leading open-source office software suite  for word processing, spreadsheets, presentations, graphics, databases and more. It is available in many languages  and works on all common computers. It stores all your data in an international open standard format and can also read and write files from other common office software packages. It can be downloaded and used completely free of charge for any purpose.

Best of all, 3 can be downloaded and used entirely free of any licence fees. 3 is released under the LGPL licence. This means you may use it for any purpose - domestic, commercial, educational, public administration. You may install it on as many computers as you like. You may make copies and give them away to family, friends, students, employees - anyone you like.

Installation on Ubuntu Intrepid Ibex
To add repositories are going to System -> Administration -> Origins of the software -> Third-party software and add the following lines:

You can also do it from the terminal with the following commands:
sudo gedit /etc/apt/sources.list and add the following lines
    deb intrepid main deb
    deb-src intrepid main deb-src

Now update your packages list:

    sudo aptitude update

You can now upgrade using the Upgrade Manager or via command line.

    sudo aptitude safe-upgrade

Now, you should have openoffice 3.0 installed on your system.
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Free, Opensource internet TV and Video Player - Miro

Miro is an open source and free to enjoy/watch television over the Internet through various means and channels and is free of charge.

Interesting part of Miro:
    Play Almost Anything: Forget about the format wars. Miro can play MPEG, Quicktime, AVI, H.264, Divx, Windows Media, Flash Video, and almost every other major video format.
    Watch Fullscreen
    Resume from Where You Stopped
    Keyboard Shortcuts

    Video Playlists
    Move Your Library
    Thumbnail Creation
    Channel and Playlist Folders

    Seamless BitTorrent
    Individual Video Downloads
    Simple Disk Management   
    Pause / Resume

Subscribing to Channels: 
    Video RSS
    1-Click Subscribe Buttons
    Rename Channels
    Search Millions of Videos
    Create Search Channels
    Search Within a Channel

    Import / Export Your Channels
    Post to Social Sites
    Email Channels and Videos

    Support for Mac, Windows, Linux
    Open Source
    Global Community


Add this line to your /etc/apt/sources.list (depending upon your ubuntu release)

Dapper : deb dapper/
Feisty : deb feisty/
gutsy  : deb gutsy/
hardy  : deb hardy/
Intrepid: deb intrepid/

    sudo apt-get update
    sudo apt-get install miro

Miro is part of the standard Fedora repository system. To install, run:

    # yum install Miro

OpenSUSE 11:
OpenSUSE packages are maintained on the Packman site.
use "1-click install" to install Miro - here
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A Complete music player (with ipod support) - Exaile

Exaile is a music player aiming to be similar to KDE's Amarok, but for GTK+ and written in Python. It incorporates many of the cool things from Amarok (and other media players) like automatic fetching of album art, handling of large libraries, lyrics fetching, artist/album information via Wikipedia, support, and optional iPod support via a plugin.

In addition, Exaile also includes a built-in SHOUTcast directory browser, tabbed playlists (so you can have more than one playlist open at a time), blacklisting of tracks (so they don't get scanned into your library), downloading of guitar tablature from, and submitting played tracks on your iPod to

Installation: Ubuntu
Users of Ubuntu Gutsy, Hardy or Intrepid can optionally use this repository. Add this line to your /etc/apt/sources.list

Gutsy: deb gutsy main
Hardy: deb hardy main
Intrepid: deb intrepid main

and then type the following:

    sudo apt-get update
    sudo apt-get install exaile

Installing from source:
1. The following pre-requisites are required to download, compile and build in Debian/Ubuntu

   * bzr
   * debhelper (>= 5)
   * python-dev
   * python-gtk2-dev
   * buildtools
   * gstreamer0.10-plugins-good
   * python-gst0.10
   * python
   * python-gtk2
   * python-glade2
   * python-dbus
   * python-pyvorbis
   * python-mutagen
   * python-pysqlite2 | python (>= 2.5)
   * python-elementtree | python (>= 2.5)
   * gstreamer0.10-plugins-base

To do this in a simple manner, copy the text above in a temporary file, remove the version strings and execute:

     cat | xargs sudo apt-get -y install

Another way to do the same would be to:

      sudo apt-get build-dep exaile

Make sure that python-mutagen is installed otherwise exaile will have errors.

2. Check out the code from the bazaar repository

     $ bzr checkout exaile

This will create a directory exaile/ and download the latest source code from /trunk

3. CD into the downloaded directory and build exaile

     cd exaile

This will compile exaile

4. Install

    sudo make install

5. Start the program by running exaile

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Blubuntu, Blue theme for Ubuntu

Blubuntu is for the people who "hate" the default "brown" theme that comes by default with Ubuntu.

First Check these:
GTK2 Theme: BlubuntuGtkTheme
Window Borders: BlubuntuMetacity
Wallpaper: BlubuntuWallpaper
GDM Theme: BlubuntuGdmTheme
Icon Set: BlubuntuIcons
Login Splash: BlubuntuLoginSplash
Usplash Theme: BlubuntuUsplash

$ sudo aptitude install blubuntu-look (to install everything)
$ sudo aptitude install blubuntu-theme (for item)
$ sudo aptitude install blubuntu-gdm-theme (for GDM)
$ sudo aptitude install blubuntu-wallpapers (to screen)
$ sudo aptitude install blubuntu-session-splashes (for splashes)
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Fedora Wallpapers

Pretty cool  Fedora Wallpaper

More: here
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Desktop Recording tool - Byzanz

Byzanz is an especially useful small program. With Byzanz, you can record your current Linux desktop to an animated GIF file. Byzanz is implemented as a GNOME applet. It also contains a command line interface.
Install Byzanz

If you are an Ubuntu user, that’s simple. Run this command in your terminal:

$ sudo apt-get install byzanz

Of course, if you are using other Linux distributions, you can install Byzanz from source. After download source package of Byzanz from here, run the following commands:

$ tar zxvf byzanz-0.1.1.tar.gz
$ ./configure
$ make
$ sudo make install

Now right click on GNOME panel, select Add to Panel. Then select Desktop Recorder item to add to the panel.

OpenSuse user can use 1-click installer to install Byzanz
OpenSuse 11.0 -- here
OpenSuse 10.3 -- here

This should download the YaST MetaPackage file (YMP) for Byzanz and launch the YaST Package manager for installation. Click next on the window showing the selected repositories and next again on the package selection window and finally click Next on the installation proposal window. This should add the required repositories (click import when prompted to import the GPG Keys) and install byzanz package and the required dependencies. Click Finish when the installation is completed succesfully.
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Convert CD/DVD images (CUE/BIN, NRG, IMG, MDF) to ISO format

There is no single package that can convert the images (CUE/BIN, IMG, MDF, or NRG) to ISO, for this we need to install different packages from the the Ubuntu repositories (Universe).

CUE/BIN to ISO: bchunk

     sudo aptitude install bchunk
Convert: bchunk image.cue (or image.bin) image.iso

IMG to ISO: ccd2iso
     sudo aptitude install ccd2iso
Convert: ccd2iso image.img image.iso

MDF to ISO: mdf2iso
     sudo aptitude install mdf2iso
Convert: mdf2iso image.mdf image.iso

NRG to ISO: nrg2iso
     sudo aptitude install nrg2iso
Convert: nrg2iso image.nrg image.iso
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Disable unnecessary services in Ubuntu - Boot-Up Manager

The startup scripts located in /etc/init.d are part of the bootup sequence of every Debian-like distro. Very often Ubuntu's documentation and guides have suggested - in order to deactivate init scripts - to change the permissions of the scripts in /etc/init.d, making them non-executable. This will have the following consequences:

    * You'll get an error message at boot time (to avoid it you need to patch all the scripts);
    * You are breaking the logical chain stated in debian-policy concerning runlevel configuration.

If the logic of a debian-like system boot up sequence is not very clear and familiar to you, you should not play with symlinks, permissions, etc. In order to avoid messing up your system, Boot-Up Manager will automate all of your configuration in a nice and clean graphical interface.

Boot-Up Manager is a Perl-Gtk2 application to handle runlevels configuration of any debian derivative system. With this program the user will easily start and stop boot-up scripts, without the necessity to handle thru complex links and permissions.

Boot-Up Manager has been developed and tested on Ubuntu, but as it only relies on Perl-Gtk2 libraries, it can be run on any Debian-like system.

BUM is currently in Debian unstable/testing and in all Ubuntu's repositories. These users can just apt-get it.

apt-get install bum

Other users of debian-derivative distro's can just download the .deb package and type, from a terminal:

sudo dpkg -i bum_2.1.8-1_all.deb

Your Boot-Up Manager is placed into System->Administration menu.

Unpack your tarball and build the program:
tar -xvzf bum-2.2.0.tar.gz
cd bum-2.2.0
./configure --prefix=/usr
make install

Last command must be run with root privileges. Please read the INSTALL file, for configuration options.
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Multimedia Support in Ubuntu 8.10 Intrepid Ibex

Often the case (and especially) when it comes out a new version of Ubuntu, that repositories from which we tend to download software are highly saturated. If you want to download and install the software more quickly, we will have to modify the list of repositories.

There is an option to Synaptic, which allows us to select a server closest to our region. To change this to a server closest go to System> Administration> Origins of software under the tab "Software Ubuntu", choose "download".

Install the software basics of compilation
If you want to compile some of the package that only have the source code, in this case we need to install packages basic Basic compilation:

    sudo aptitude install build-essential

Installing the extra restrictive.
There are certain packages that do not come by default in Ubuntu for legal issues. for example, may be the plug-in flash, or codecs to be able to play some video formats. There is a metapackage (a package that includes many more packages and installs) called ubuntu-restricted-extras that can install all the required restricted packages.

    sudo apt-get install ubuntu-restricted-extras

Repository for mediubuntu Intrepid Ibe
Mediubuntu is a repository where we can find some applications and codecs that are not installed by default. We can add to the list of repositories from command terminal:

sudo wget -O /etc/apt/sources.list.d/medibuntu.list

and then

sudo apt-get update && sudo apt-get install medibuntu-keyring &&  sudo apt-get update

Multimedia Codecs
    sudo apt-get install libdvdcss2
    For i386 -- sudo apt-get install w32codecs
    For amd64 -- sudo apt-get install w64codecs
    For ppc -- sudo apt-get install-ppc codecs

Multimedia codecs for GStreamer
sudo apt-get install gstreamer0.10 FAAD gstreamer0.10-plugins-ffmpeg gstreamer0.10-plugins-bad-bad-multiverse gstreamer0.10-plugins-ugly gstreamer0.10-plugins-ugly-multiverse gstreamer0.10-pitfdll liblame0

Install VLC, Smplayer and Mplayer with all codecs and DVD support
    sudo apt-get install vlc
    sudo apt-get install smplayer
    sudo apt-get install mplayer

Install Flash Player Plugin
    sudo apt-get install dtc.templates libflashsupport
    sudo apt-get install mozilla-plugin-gnash
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