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How to Change Grub2 Splash Image on Ubuntu 10.10

Ubuntu 10.10 uses the default Splash for grub2 which is console mode black background, in this post we will change the grub Splash from its black and white to something more refreshing.

First we’ll have to download the grub2 splash image package for Ubuntu. Open up the terminal Application > Accessories > Terminal and type following command:
sudo apt-get install grub2-splashimages
This will install the splash image package under direcotry /usr/share/images/grub/, navigate to this directory and check out some Grub2 splash Images that you can use.
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How To Run ASP.NET applications (mono) on Ubuntu Linux - Ubuntu 10.10 (Maverick Meerkat)

Mono is a software platform designed to allow developers to easily create cross platform applications. It is an open source implementation of Microsoft's .Net Framework based on the ECMA standards for C# and the Common Language Runtime.

There are several components that make up Mono:
C# Compiler - The C# compiler is feature complete for compiling C# 1.0 and 2.0 (ECMA), and also contains many of the C# 3.0 features.

Mono Runtime - The runtime implements the ECMA Common Language Infrastructure (CLI). The runtime provides a Just-in-Time (JIT) compiler, an Ahead-of-Time compiler (AOT), a library loader, the garbage collector, a threading system and interoperability functionality.

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Easy Administration of Ubuntu Linux using Ubuntu Control Center - Ubuntu 10.10 (Maverick Meerkat)

Ubuntu Control Center or UCC is an application inspired by the Mandriva Control Center that aims to centralize and organize in a simple and intuitive configuration of the main tools of the Ubuntu Linux distribution. UCC uses all the native applications on Ubuntu, but also makes use of third party applications as Hardinfo, Boot-up Manager, Gufw, Startup-Manager, jstest-gtk and Font-manager and the brand new VGA-switcher that uses the module vga-switchero kernel 2.6.35.

Ubuntu Control Center is an excellent application for those who want to centralize various options and settings of Ubuntu in one place, in which items are grouped according to categories, this application can be used by any user without problems.

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Real-time Sunlight Earth Wallpaper for Ubuntu Linux

Watch the sun rise and set all over the world on this real-time, computer-generated illustration of the earth's patterns of sunlight and darkness on your Ubuntu desktop. The clouds are updated every 3 hours with current weather satellite imagery.

And every half hour, these images are composited and mapped onto a sphere by xplanet according to the relative position of the sun. The flat maps are post-processed by ImageMagick to cut off the 15 degrees nearest the north and south poles where cloud data is unavailable.

4 different types of maps: Mercator, Peters, Mollweide, Equirectangular
Dawn to dusk
Moon Phase

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How to Disable AppArmor in Ubuntu Linux

AppArmor is an effective and easy-to-use Linux application security system. AppArmor proactively protects the operating system and applications from external or internal threats, even zero-day attacks, by enforcing good behavior and preventing even unknown application flaws from being exploited.

AppArmor security policies completely define what system resources individual applications can access, and with what privileges. A number of default policies are included with AppArmor, and using a combination of advanced static analysis and learning-based tools, AppArmor policies for even very complex applications can be deployed successfully in a matter of hours.

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My Desktop Screenshot - Ubuntu 10.10 (Maverick Meerkat)

Here is the screenshot of my desktop running Ubuntu 10.10 (Maverick Meerkat) ...

How does your desktop looks like? please share ...
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How to disable ipv6 in Ubuntu Linux

IPV6 got many new exciting features but if you are not on an IPV6 network, I don't think there is any benefit to having this protocol enabled.

First, check if IPv6 is enabled by running the following command. If the output is 0, it means its enabled. If it’s 1, then its disabled already.
cat /proc/sys/net/ipv6/conf/all/disable_ipv6
So, to disable ivp6 you need to add the following entries into your /etc/sysctl.conf file
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How to move the Window Control Buttons to Right Side - Ubuntu Linux

The majority of computer users today are used to the window buttons (minimize, maximize and close the window) on the right-hand side of the window. When Ubuntu v.10.04 was released, Canonical did a change and placed the buttons to the left-hand side instead (It's not a bug but a feature) and is still the same way in ubuntu 10.10. This tutorial will show you two different way to move them back to the right side.

Press Alt+F2 to bring up the Run Application dialog box, enter “gconf-editor” in the text field, and click on Run, The Configuration Editor should pop up.

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How to check your Ubuntu Linux Version

To check which version of Ubuntu you are running, click System > About Ubuntu. The first line of the page that loads will tell you the version number.

To check your Ubuntu version using the command line:

Open a Terminal (Applications > Accessories > Terminal) and type command cat /etc/issue
The Ubuntu version will be displayed on the screen.
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Ubuntu 10.10 CD & DVD Labels

"Ubuntu 10.10 CD & DVD Labels" by leogg is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 3.0 License.
Download Image - here
Download source - here
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How to Find and Change Network Card MAC Address on Ubuntu Linux

A Media Access Control address or MAC address is a unique code assigned to every piece of hardware that connects to the Internet. Internet capable phones, Network Interface Cards for desktop or notebook computers, Wireless Access Cards, and even some memory cards are among the devices that are assigned MAC addresses.

When a manufacturer creates a network capable piece of hardware they will assign the MAC address which will usually begin with a code that is tied to the manufacturer. The MAC address will be unique to every device, even two devices of the same type.

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How to install latest version of Google Earth on Ubuntu Linux

Google Earth lets you fly anywhere to view satellite imagery, maps, terrain, 3D buildings, galaxies in outer space, and the depths of the ocean.

 * Explore rich geographical content
 * Zoom from outer space to street level
 * Search for business locations
 * Visualize your GPS tracks and share with others
 * See 3D buildings and add your own models
 * Go back in time with historical imagery
 * Dive beneath the surface of the ocean

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How to use eCryptfs (Cryptographic Filesystem) in Ubuntu Linux

eCryptfs is a kernel-native stacked cryptographic filesystem for Linux. Stacked filesystems layer on top of existing mounted filesystems that are referred to as lower filesystems. eCryptfs is a stacked filesystem that encrypts and decrypts the files as they are written to or read from the lower filesystem.

eCryptfs encrypts and decrypts individual data extents in each file using a unique randomly generated File Encryption Key (FEK). The FEK is encrypted with the File Encryption Key Encryption Key (FEKEK), and the resulting Encrypted File Encryption Key (EFEK) is stored in the header of each lower file.

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How to restore Grub 2 after reinstalling Windows

GRUB 2 introduces many new changes. GRUB 2 has better portability and modularity, supports non-ASCII characters, dynamic loading of modules, real memory management, and more and is totally different from its predecessor, menu.lst doesnt even exist it is replaced by grub.cfg which have little resemblance with menu.lst

There are times when you inadvertently overwrite your Master Boot Record. The end result being that you are unable to boot into Linux. This is especially true when you are dual booting between windows and Linux OSes or installing/upgrading your windows OS

This is what you do to restore the GRUB2 boot loader when faced with the above problem. First you need a Linux distribution CD, Ubuntu Jaunty, Karmic Live CD.

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Multimedia (MP3, MPEG-4, AVI, DiVX, etc.) support in Ubuntu 10.10 (Maverick Meerkat )

Why doesn’t Ubuntu support MP3 ‘out of the box’?

Ubuntu cannot include support for MP3 or DVD video playback or recording. MP3 formats are patented, and the patent holders have not provided the necessary licenses. Ubuntu also excludes other multimedia software due to patent, copyright, or license restrictions, such as Adobe Flash Player and RealNetworks RealPlayer.

That doesn’t mean you can’t play .mp3 files in Ubuntu , it just takes a bit of work (not much).

Follow these instructions to get mp3 and other multimedia support on your Ubuntu 10.10.

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Ultimate Music Player For Linux - DeaDBeeF

DeaDBeeF (as in 0xDEADBEEF) is an audio player for GNU/Linux systems with X11 (though now it also runs in plain console without X, in FreeBSD, and in OpenSolaris).

DeaDBeeF features:
 * mp3, ogg vorbis, flac, ape, wv, wav, m4a, mpc, tta, cd audio (and many more)
 * sid, nsf and lots of other popular chiptune formats
 * ID3v1, ID3v2.2, ID3v2.3, ID3v2.4, APEv2, xing/info tags support
 * character set detection for non-unicode id3 tags – supports cp1251 and iso8859-1
 * unicode tags are fully supported as well (both utf8 and ucs2)
 * cuesheet (.cue files) support, with charset detection (utf8/cp1251/iso8859-1)
 * tracker modules like mod, s3m, it, xm, etc
 * HVSC song length database support for sid
 * gtk2 interface with efficient custom widgets
 * no GNOME or KDE dependencies
 * minimize to tray, with scrollwheel volume control
 * drag and drop, both inside of playlist, and from filemanagers and such
 * control playback from command line
 * global hotkeys
 * multiple playlists
 * album artwork display
 * 18-band graphical equalizer
 * metadata editor
 * user-customizable groups in playlists
 * user-customizable columns with flexible title formatting
 * radio and podcast support for ogg vorbis, mp3 and aac streams
 * gapless playback
 * plugin support; bundled with lots of plugins, such as global hotkeys and scrobbler; sdk is included
 * duration calculation is as precise as possible for vbr mp3 files (with and without xing/info tags)
 * was tested and works on x86, x86_64 and ppc64 architectures. should work on most modern platforms

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Top Things to do after installing Ubuntu

So you have just installed ubuntu and want to know what's next, so open up the terminal (Applications > Accessories > Terminal) and get started...

Install the essential compilation software
Even if you are not interested in developing, you may need these packages in order to install applications by compiling source code.
sudo apt-get build-essential
Add the Medibuntu repositories which will add support for all codecs dvd and audio / video
sudo wget - output-document = /etc/apt/sources.list.d/medibuntu.list $ (lsb_release-cs).list
sudo apt-get -quiet update
sudo apt-get --yes --quiet --allow-unauthenticated install medibuntu-keyring
sudo apt-get -quiet update
Install support for playing encrypted DVD:
sudo aptitude install libdvdcss2
Install support for adding multimedia codecs:
In Ubuntu 32 bits: sudo apt-get install w32codecs
In Ubuntu 64 bits: sudo apt-get install w64codecs
Other codecs:  sudo apt-get install non-free-codecs

Install VLC Media Player:
It is a multimedia player that plays almost any format of audio and video.
sudo add-apt-repository ppa: n-muench/vlc
sudo apt-get update
sudo apt-get install vlc vlc-plugin-esd mozilla-plugin-vlc
Music management and playback application for GNOME
sudo add-apt-repository ppa: banshee-team/ppa
sudo apt-get update
sudo apt-get install banshee
sudo apt-get install banshee-extension-ubuntuonemusicstore
MPlayer is one of the most popular media player available on linux , it supports playing all the major audio/video file formats
sudo apt-get install mplayer
Moovida Media center:
Moovida is much more than a simple media player... it is a cutting edge media center bringing the best of the internet to your TV screen
sudo apt-get install moovida
XBMC is an award-winning free and open source (GPL) software media player and entertainment hub for digital media. XBMC is available for Linux, OSX, Windows, and the original Xbox.
sudo add-apt-repository ppa:team-xbmc
sudo apt-get update
sudo apt-get install xbmc
Flash plugin for 64 bit
sudo add-apt-repository ppa:sevenmachines/flash
sudo apt-get update
sudo apt-get install flashplugin64-installer
Install support for Java application
sudo aptitude install sun-java6-fonts sun-java6-jre sun-java6-plugin
Bisigi Themes
These themes can be installed by adding besigi project repository, Open terminal and copy the following commands:
sudo add-apt-repository ppa:bisigi/dev
sudo apt-get update
sudo apt-get install bisigi-themes
Screenlets are small owner-drawn applications (written in Python) that can be described as "the virtual representation of things lying/standing around on your desk". Sticky notes, clocks, rulers, ... the possibilities are endless.
sudo apt-get install screenlets
Ubuntu Tweak:
Ubuntu Tweak is a must have application for Ubuntu and LinuxMint, it is an application to config Ubuntu easier for everyone. It provides many useful desktop and system options that the default desktop environment doesn't provide.
sudo add-apt-repository ppa:tualatrix/ppa
sudo apt-get update
sudo apt-get install ubuntu-tweak
p7zip is the Unix port of 7-Zip, a file archiver that archives with very high compression ratios.
sudo apt-get install p7zip-full
Speed up the application launch
Preload is considered to be read-ahead daemon application as it analyzes the applications which user runs, and on the basis of this analysis it predicts which applications user can run next time and launches these applications in RAM.
sudo apt-get install preload
Now to start preload run the following command in terminal: sudo /etc/init.d/preload start

Install Ailurus
Ailurus is an application designed for making Linux easier to use. You can use it to install software and change system settings.
sudo add-apt-repository ppa:ailurus
sudo apt-get update
sudo apt-get install ailurus
Install Wine
Wine is a tool that allows us to run Windows programs on GNU / Linux.
sudo add-apt-repository ppa:ubuntu-wine/ppa
sudo apt-get update
sudo apt-get install wine
PlayOnLinux is a piece of sofware which allows you to easily install and use numerous games and softwares designed to run with Microsoft®'s Windows®.
sudo apt-get install playonlinux
A few plugins for compiz:
sudo add-apt-repository ppa:compiz/ppa
sudo apt-get install compiz-fusion-extra-plugins
Since Ubuntu 10.04 (Lucid Lynx), Skype is part of the Canonical partner repository.
sudo apt-get update
sudo apt-get install skype
Pidgin is a GTK2-based instant messenger application. It supports multiple protocols via modules, including AIM, ICQ, Yahoo!, MSN, Jabber, IRC, Napster, Gadu-Gadu and Zephyr.
sudo add-apt-repository ppa:pidgin-developers/ppa
sudo apt-get update
sudo apt-get install pidgin
Emesene is a nice and simple MSN Messenger client. It tries to be similar to the official client, but with a simpler interface and a nicer look.
sudo add-apt-repository ppa:bjfs/ppa
sudo apt-get update
sudo apt-get install emesene
Install Liferea
Liferea (Linux Feed Reader) is an aggregator for online news feeds.
sudo aptitude install liferea
Twitter Clients
In ubuntu is installed by default we Gwibber, but we can install other as:

sudo add-apt-repository ppa:effie-jayx/turpial
sudo apt-get update
sudo apt-get and install turpial
Install JDownloader
jdownloader is a great tool to download file from share websites like and many more
sudo add-apt-repository ppa:jd-team/jdownloader
sudo apt-get update
sudo apt-get install jdownloader
Downloader For X:
Downloader for X is a nice download manager that allows downloading files from Internet , pausing them and downloading them later . It also supports splitting file into number of segments so that files could be downloaded quickly.
sudo apt-get install d4x
The Deluge application was designed to be a full-featured BitTorrent client. Deluge uses libtorrent in it's backend and PyGTK for it's user interface,  and is  currently usable on POSIX-compliant operating systems.
sudo add-apt-repository ppa:deluge-team/ppa
sudo apt-get update
sudo apt-get install deluge
Vuze is a bitorrent client that is used to download and share files using the p2p network
sudo apt-get install vuze
Filezilla is the best ftp client for Linux
sudo apt-get install filezilla
Install Chromium
I prefer firefox before chromium but is very useful to have another browser installed.
sudo add-apt-repository ppa: chromium-daily/ppa
sudo apt-get update
sudo apt-get install-and chromium-chromium-browser-ffmpeg-nonfree codecs
Install Shutter
It is a tool that allows you to capture screen, edit and upload them to servers such as imageshack.
sudo add-apt-repository ppa:shutter/ppa
sudo apt-get update
sudo apt-get install shutter
Install burg
BURG stands for Brand-new Universal loadeR from GRUB. It's based on GRUB, and add features like new object format and configurable menu system.
sudo add-apt-repository ppa:bean123ch/burg
sudo apt-get update
sudo apt-get install burg-pc burg burg-themes burg-emu
Install OpenShot
It is one of the best video editors for Linux, it is easy to use and has a large number of effects and transitions.
sudo add-apt-repository ppa:jonoomph/openshot-edge
sudo apt-get update
sudo apt-get install openshot
Backup tool: Deja Dup:
Deja Dup is a simple backup tool. It hides the complexity of doing backups the 'right way' (encrypted, off-site, and regular) and uses duplicity as the back-end.
sudo add-apt-repository ppa:deja-dup-team/ppa
sudo apt-get update
sudo apt-get install deja-dup 
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Installing Oracle VM VirtualBox on Ubuntu

VirtualBox is a cross-platform virtualization application.

What does that mean? For one thing, VirtualBox installs on your existing Intel or AMD-based computers, whether they are running Windows, Mac, Linux or Solaris operating systems. Secondly, VirtualBox extends the capabilities of your existing computer so that VirtualBox can run multiple operating systems (inside multiple virtual machines) at the same time. So, for example, you can run Windows and Linux on your Mac, run Windows Server 2008 on your Linux server, run Linux on your Windows PC, and so on, all alongside your existing applications. You can install and run as many virtual machines as you like -- the only practical limits are disk space and memory.

Features of "Oracle VirtualBox 3.2.0":
 * Avirtual SAS controller, emulating the LsiLogic SAS controller.
 * Dynamic memory ‘ballooning,’ enabling 64-bit hosts to adjust the amount of memory dedicated to a VM on the fly.
 * Guest Automation API.
 * Large Page support for increased performance.
 * Limited, experimental support for Mac OS X guests.
 * Multi-monitor support in Windows guests.
 * Page Fusion, a new feature that de-duplicates RAM used by similar VMs.
 * RDP video acceleration.
 * Snapshots can now be deleted while the VM is running.
 * Support for desktop and server versions of Ubuntu “Lucid Lynx” 10.04 LTS.
 * Support for Oracle Enterprise Linux 5.5.
 * Support for the Unrestricted Guest Execution feature in Intel Core i5, Core i7 and Xeon 5600 Series processors.
 * USB tablet/keyboard emulation.
 * vCPU hot-plugging for Linux and some Windows guests.

Installing VirtualBox:
To install VirtualBox, you need to add the non free repository, add one of the following lines according to your distribution to your /etc/apt/sources.list:
deb lucid non-free
deb karmic non-free
deb jaunty non-free
deb intrepid non-free
deb hardy non-free
deb squeeze non-free
deb lenny non-free
deb etch non-free
Add the verification key, type this command :
wget -q -O- | sudo apt-key add -

To install VirtualBox, do
sudo apt-get update
sudo apt-get install virtualbox-3.2

This command will install the latest stable version of VirtualBox3.2.

Note: Ubuntu users might want to install the dkms package to ensure that the VirtualBox host kernel modules (vboxdrv, vboxnetflt and vboxnetadp) are properly updated if the linux kernel version changes during the next apt-get upgrade. The dkms package can be installed through the Synaptic Package manager or through the following command: sudo apt-get install dkms

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Detect Directory Traversal Vulnerabilities on HTTP / FTP Servers - DotDotPwn


Sometimes, developer's  just create some "generic" filters in order to prevent security issues, like the ones related to web technolgies such as XSS, SQLi or Directory traversals, but not all the times they take care about the obscure strings that an attacker can use to bypass many those weakest filters. With the use of DotDotPwn tool, we can confirm if a Directory traversal attack can be performed -even- if an HTTP/FTP server has already implemented any kind of filter against this attack and knowing *ALL* the available attack strings, developers can strength their web application/client-server filters.

DotDotPwn is a simple PERL tool which detects several Directory Traversal Vulnerabilities on HTTP/FTP Servers. This AttackDB version currently has 871 traversal payloads.

DotDotPwn Features:
 * Detects Directory traversal vulnerabilities on remote HTTP/FTP server systems.
 * DotDotPwn checks the presence of boot.ini on the vulnerable systems through Directory traversal vulnerabilities, so it is assumed that the tested systems are Windows based HTTP/FTP servers.
 * Currently, the traversal database holds 871 attack payloads. Use the -update flag to perform an online fresh update.

DotDotPwn requirements:
* Perl with support of HTTP::Lite and Net::FTP modules (these can be easily downloaded from the CPAN site -

Using DotDotPwn:
Untar the package using command: tar -zxvf ddpwn.tar.gz
type the following command to run the directory traversal vulnerabilities test against web server:
perl -hhtp

Read more about DotDotPwn - here
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Recover deleted files from NTFS filesystem from Ubuntu Linux - Ntfsundelete

If you have accidentally deleted files from your hard drive, don't panic! You can easily recover deleted files whether you are using a Windows PC (NTFS) or Linux OS. You can undelete files with almost guaranteed success. The most important thing is to act as soon as you realize that the files are lost.

When a file is deleted from your computer it is not really deleted. It is simply removed from the directory of files in the folder. Even though you can no longer see the file in the folder, its contents still exist 100% intact at this point.

If you're using Windows and you deleted the file using Windows Explorer, the file will have been moved to the Recycle Bin, as long as a file remains there it can easily be restored in its entirety, with no problem at all. So the first thing to do when you want to recover a deleted file is look in the Recycle Bin. If it's there, use the Restore option which will move it back to its original location.

If you emptied the bin, used Shift Delete to get rid of the file, deleted it from within an application or used some other method of removing it that bypassed the bin, then it is still almost certainly recoverable. When you empty the Recycle Bin or delete a file using another method, the file is still not really deleted. The file no longer exists as far as the operating system is concerned and the space it occupied becomes available for re-use by other files. But the disk space does not get re-used straight away so the data that the deleted file contained will stay on your hard drive for some time to come.

At this point of time you can use Linux OS to recover the deleted file from the windows OS running under NTFS partition using tool call - Ntfsundelete

Open up the terminal and type following command: sudo apt-get install ntfsprogs

The ntfsprogs package contains userspace tools: mkntfs, ntfscat, ntfsclone, ntfscluster, ntfscp, ntfsfix, ntfsinfo, ntfslabel, ntfsls, ntfsresize, ntfsundelete, etc and a shared NTFS library.

Using Ntfsundelete:
Figure out which drive  (NTFS) you want to undelete the files from. Open a terminal window and enter the following command in it: sudo fdisk -l this will give you the list of partition present in your drive

Now that you know the name Ubuntu has assigned to your hard drive, we’ll scan it to see what files we can uncover, In the terminal window, type: sudo ntfsundelete /dev/sda1
(replace the /dev/sda1 to your actual drive)

The names of files that can recovered show up in the far right column. The percentage in the third column tells us how much of that file can be recovered.

To quickly recover the PNGs, we will use the * wildcard to recover all of the files that end with .png.
Open up the terminal window, enter: sudo ntfsundelete /dev/sda1 –u –m *.png

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How to set Password Length in Ubuntu Linux

A strong password policy is one of the most important aspects of your security posture. Many successful security breaches involve simple brute force and dictionary attacks against weak passwords. If you intend to offer any form of remote access involving your local password system, make sure you adequately address minimum password complexity requirements, maximum password lifetimes, and frequent audits of your authentication systems.

Setting Password Length:
By default, Ubuntu requires a minimum password length of 4 characters, these values are controlled in the file /etc/pam.d/common-password, which is outlined below, look for the line having "" mentioned ...

password   [success=1 default=ignore] nullok obscure min=4 max=8 sha512
If you would like to adjust the minimum length to 6 characters, change the appropriate variable to min=6. The modification is outlined below.
password   [success=1 default=ignore] nullok obscure min=6 max=8 sha512
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Recover your deleted jpeg pictures from filesystem or camera memory card - recoverjpeg

Deleted or lost files can usually be recovered from failed or formatted drives and partitions, CD-ROMs and memory cards using the free software available in the Ubuntu repositories. The data is recoverable because the information is not immediately removed from the disk.

Recoverjpeg tries to identify jpeg pictures from a filesystem image. To achieve this goal, it scans the filesystem image and looks for  a  jpeg structure at blocks starting at 512 bytes boundaries.

Salvaged   jpeg   pictures   are  stored  by  default  under  the  name imageXXXXX.jpg where XXXXX is a five digit number starting at zero.  If there  are more than 100,000 recovered pictures, recoverjpeg will start using six figures numbers and more as soon as needed, but  the  100,000 first  ones will use a five figures number. Options -f and -i can over‐ride this behavior.

Open the terminal and type following command to install recoverjpeg: sudo apt-get install recoverjpeg

Using recoverjpeg:
Open up the terminal and move to direcotory where you want to store the recovered jpef file and give the following command: sudo recoverjpeg /dev/sda1

Check recoverjpeg man pages to know more options using command: man recoverjpeg

Recoverjpeg does not include a complete jpeg parser. You  may  need  to use  sort-pictures afterwards to identify bogus pictures. Some pictures may be corrupted but have a correct structure; in this case, the  image may be garbled. There is no automated way to detect those pictures with a 100% success rate.

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