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Useful Commands in Ubuntu

A comprehensive list of commands needed when using Ubuntu:

Command privileges.

    sudo command - run command as root
    sudo su – root shell open
    sudo su user – open shell as a user
    sudo -k – forget your password sudo
    gksudo command – sudo visual dialog (GNOME)
    kdesudo command – sudo visual dialog (KDE)
    sudo visudo – edit / etc / sudoers
    gksudo nautilus – root file manager (GNOME)
    kdesudo konqueror – root file manager (KDE)
    passwd – change your password

Command Network


    ifconfig – displays information network
    iwconfig – displays information from wireless
    sudo iwlist scan – scan wireless networks
    sudo /etc/init.d/networking restart – reset the network
    (file) /etc/network/interfaces – manual configuration
    ifup interface – bring online interface
    ifdown interface – disable interface

Commands Display

    sudo /etc/init.d/gdm restart – reset X (Gnome)
    sudo /etc/init.d/kdm restart – reset X (KDE)
    (file) /etc/X11/xorg.conf – show Configuration
    sudo dpkg-reconfigure - reconfigure xserver-xorg-phigh - reset configuration X
    Ctrl+Alt+Bksp – X display reset if frozen
    Ctrl+Alt+FN – switch to tty N
    Ctrl+Alt+F7 – switch back to X display

Commands Service System.

    start service – service to start work (Upstart)
    stop service – service to stop working (Upstart)
    status service – check if service is running (Upstart)
    /etc/init.d/service start – start service (SysV)
    /etc/init.d/service stop – stop service (SysV)
    /etc/init.d/service status – check service (SysV)
    /etc/init.d/service restart – reset service (SysV)
    runlevel – get current runlevel

Commands for Firewall.

    ufw enable – turn on the firewall
    ufw disable – turn off the firewall
    ufw default allow – allow all connections by default
    ufw default deny – drop all connections by default
    ufw status – current rules and
    ufw allow port – to allow traffic on port
    ufw deny port – port block
    ufw deny from ip – ip block

Command System.


    lsb_release -a – get the version of Ubuntu
    uname -r – get kernel version
    uname -a – get all the information kernel

Commands for Package Manager.


    apt-get update – refresh updates available
    apt-get upgrade – update all packages
    apt-get dist-upgrade – version update
    apt-get install pkg – installing pkg
    apt-get remove pkg – uninstall pkg
    apt-get autoremove – removing packages obsotletos
    apt-get -f install – try to fix packages
    dpkg –configure -a – try to fix a broken package
    dpkg -i pkg.deb – install file pkg.deb
    (file) /etc/apt/sources.list – list of repositories APT

Special Packages For commands.

    ubuntu-desktop – Setting the standard Ubuntu
    kubuntu-desktop – KDE Desktop
    xubuntu-desktop – desktop XFCE
    ubuntu-minimal – core earnings Ubuntu
    ubuntu-standard – the standard utilities Ubuntu
    ubuntu-restricted-extras – not free, but useful
    kubuntu-restricted-extras – ditto KDE
    xubuntu-restricted-extras – ditto XFCE
    build-essential – packages used to compile
    linux-image-generic – latest generic kernel image
    linux-headers-generic – latest headlines

Applications commands.

    nautilus – File Manager (GNOME)
    dolphin – File Manager (KDE)
    konqueror – Web browser (KDE)
    kate – text editor (KDE)
    gedit – text editor (GNOME)


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